questioned documents

Questioned Document Examination


Forensic document examination or Questioned document examination is a branch forensic science associated with the examination of documents and its various elements which might be currently or in future be a subject matter of dispute. Forensic Handwriting Examination is also considered to be one of the most versatile fields of investigations as no computer applications till date has been successful in replacing the skill of the expert before conclusion. The field of document examination requires a combined skill of physics, chemistry and biology based on the document problem in specific cases. Document examination covers (but not limited to) forgery, cheque frauds, document and handwriting authenticity, counterfeiting, wills/ contracts/ deeds, suicide notes, ink, writing instrument, paper, paper folds, stamps, type writers, printers, dyes, security features and their various combinations.

We offer services for:


Signature Forgery Examination: Today, signatures have assumed great importance and everybody, regardless of the social level in which he lives, must sign his name daily or many times a day. Under these conditions, the question often arises whether a disputed signature is genuine or not. The examination is done to address concerns about potential authorship also presents evidence before the court (expert opinion).


Handwriting Identification: "Two writings are the product of one person if the similarities, when taken in combination, are sufficiently individual and there are no fundamental unexplainable differences." Handwriting identification is a discriminatory process that derives from the compression of writing habits and an evaluation of significance of their similarities or differences.


Additions / alterations Examination: These examinations are performed in order to detect whether a portion of a document has been altered such as dates and amounts, some portion rendered not readily visible, or some text added. If an obliteration/alteration is identified, then the method is determined and described, and if possible the text of the obliterated entry deciphered.


Ink and paper examination: In those cases where non-invasive examination is unable to provide sufficient information to address the questions raised, it may be necessary to consider invasive paper and/or ink analysis. Indented writing is an imprint which may be left on the underlying pages when the top sheet of paper is written upon. Analysis, comparison and distinguishing between different inks and papers, reveal alterations on a document, identify obliterated entries, identify instances of page substitution, and visualise hidden security printing features.


Printers / typewriter examination: With regard to typewriters, questions arise as to whether a series of documents were prepared on the same typewriter; what make/model of typewriter was used; or when was the typed document produced. Typewriters are identifiable as to make and model by means of class characteristics such as manual/electric, fabric ribbon/carbon film ribbon, type bars/daisywheel/ball element, typeface design, and so on. Machines may acquire individualizing characteristics to varying degrees due to use or misuse, damage, and general wear. The degree of success in a given case will vary with the type of machine with which the examiner is faced.


Rubber stamp / mechanical impression examination: Many organisations around the world rely on the use of official rubber stamp impressions to authenticate their documents. Comparing characteristics in common such as wear and damage defects, reproducible blemishes, impression voids, improper and extraneous inking, or coincidental peripheral printing.


Preparation of Cross examination of other Handwriting experts: To cross-examine an expert witness, in order to test whether he/she has the knowledge of the things he/she testifies and if, upon examination, it is found that the witness had the means and abilityto ascertain the facts about which he testifies, then his memory, his motives, everything may be scrutinized by the cross-examination. In cross examinations great latitude is allowed in the mode of putting questions, and the counsel may putleading questions.


Consultation, Training and Certification: Training is being given in educational, financial and banking sectors, they are being certified after completing the program full-fledged.